Each art form has its own “language”. A word is the basic instrument of a poet, writer or playwright, paints are means of portrayal for an artist, and sounds serve as “raw materials” for music. A piece of music by means of sounds conveys feelings, emotions, and thoughts. Avicenna claimed that “impacting strength of a speech depends on its proportionality”. It is well-known that a poetic speech sounds more charmingly, than an ordinary speech. And harmony, proportionality of sounds has more impacting force.
Avicenna said, “The superiority of music over poetry is comparable with superiority of a word over silence”. The great German poet Heine claimed that “where the word ends, there music begins”. The meaning of music, melody, or motive can not be expressed in words: they aren’t subject to “translation”. The thoughts put into words in works of art, can be realized by re-reading. And at each reading of high literature one can reveal a new sense concluded in its text. But realization, understanding of the meaning of a musical work depends mainly on the listener’s beliefs and spiritual world, because music is perceived by both heart, and all being of the person.
Music since ancient times reflected and still reflects various aspects of life of society, differently impact on the people perceiving it. Songs and melodies were both means of pleasure, entertainment, and means of expression of grief, sadness, hopes and aspirations of the people.
A musician, as well as representative of other arts, must have his own manner of playing, the own style to get people’s attention and achieve success. And this is fruits of tireless work and creative searches. The famous Russian pianist Anton Rubenstein said about it: “If I don’t work on myself a single day, it will be felt by my family, and if I don’t work on myself two days, it will be felt by my audience”.
The musical instruments that have amazing feature are of great importance in musical art. The ancient folk musical instruments created by people, throughout centuries, being in harmony with the voice of a man, gained naturalness of sounding.
In Renaissance in Europe the opera arose, homeland of which is Italy. It is still the largest center of the opera art based on performance style named “Bel Canto” that is “graceful performance”. And Bel Canto itself evolved from fine traditions of the Italian music. One of the leading musical instruments in classical European musical art is a violin known as “the queen of instruments”, which is also based on “Bel Canto”. The first samples of violins in many countries were considered as folk musical instruments. For example, its ancient types were called by the people of Transcarpathia as “chudulka”, and Russians named it “sakilka”. Subsequently the violin turned into a new musical instrument, in many aspects different from its ancient samples.
The musical instruments, which passed a long historical path of development incorporated peculiar features of musical culture of many peoples. It is, for example, Indian “sitora” and “ud”, played a huge role in musical culture of the people of Central and Near Asia. Such great thinkers as Farabi and Avicenna explained some of their theoretical views on the example of Ud, considering it as the most perfect instrument, which can link theory with practice.
In emergence of Shashmakom the same important role was played by “tanbur”. It sounds exiting souls by its sound modulations, which are naturally combined with the nature of the Uzbek folk motives. The famous musicologist V. Belyaev claimed that “tanbur is a key of Shashmakom”.
Musical art of the peoples of the East is a traditional music passed on from generation to generation orally. The concept “tradition” means here not only mastering the style or manner of performance, but also their development, improvement, implying devotion to traditions and at the same time constantly renewed aspiration to new heights.
For continuation of traditions skillful teachers passed on their skills to their pupils and sought to wake in their hearts love for heritage of the ancestors. Therefore our people have a saying “a teacher without pupils likes a tree without fruits”. A pupil is a new flower of art, its life-giving force. A pupil is a young sapling. In order to turn him into “a strong tree”, the teacher’s care is required. That is why the Uzbek people consider that “the pupil who did not see a teacher dances in every possible way”, that is has not personal face.
Therefore “teacher – pupil” tradition, i.e. mentoring, is of great importance in art, being a bright page in the history of our music. Training at a teacher, following his example, mastering his traditions and creative development serve to further development of art.
The “teacher – pupil” relations can take various forms. Some pupils learn art secrets, accurately following manuals and lessons of their teachers. Others elect a teacher in the field of art as a guiding star, independently studying his creativity and direction.
The history of our art, the “teacher – pupil” tradition has deep roots. Thanks to the continuity in art, ancient musical masterpieces of master musicians created on the basis of traditions of the people and their performing schools reached the present time. The fact that the profession of the musician is based on the “teacher – pupil” tradition gives the chance to preserve and multiply our national and musical culture. Preservation of this tradition today and in the future will serve for further development of national musical art along with respect for history and culture of our people.
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