In the 1920-ies – the formative years Uzbek female professional the dance, the performers needed real courage. The dance was called the struggle for liberation, for approval of the dreams of a bright, happy the future. In the fight for their freedom many women were victims of. In their including Nurhon, Topahon, Halima, who had sacrificed their their life for the fact that without the burqa, with open face danced on the stage. Continuing their business, we honor the memory of Tamara Khanum, Makarrami Turgunbaeva, Gavhar Rahimov, Maria Kuznetsova, Masumi Root, Rozii Karimova, those who stood at the origins of the formation of the Uzbek dance. Tamara Khanum, Armenian by origin. Her teachers were such figures art, as Mukhiddin Measles Yakubov, doirist Mouth olim Komilov, Yusupjon Cyzicus Shakarjaonov, Tuhtasin Jalilov, Zhura Sultonov, Khozhi Siddiq Islomov. Performing dances of the peoples of the world, Tamara Khanum was and master choreographer. In 1932, she together with his teacher Mouth Dlimom produced larger the program of the mass and solo dances for underway in Uzbekistan Olympics folk art. The most interesting in it was placed on the ancient rhythms of dance “Worms”, became one of the most popular Uzbek dances and received in fulfillment of Tamara Khanum and its talented students Mukarram Turgunbaeva, Portugal izmaylovoy and Khalima Komilova known far outside the country. In it with the help of gestures used in dance, open labour-intensive process of workpiece cocoons of the silkworm to the finished fabric. The movement of the dancers filled with internal musicality, expressive plasticity, they reflect connected with work of the thoughts and the experience.
In 1932. Tamara Khanum for merits in training of choreographers, the development of music and dance art awarded the title of people’s artist The Uzbek SSR, in 1935 for the participation in the 1-m London International festival folk dance and music art Tamara Khanum and Mouth aliyah Kamilov have been awarded the “Golden medal”. The audience called Tamara Khanum “The Pearl Of The East”. The extensive the geography of its repertoire replenished the dances and songs of other peoples of the world. In 1956, in honour of the 50 anniversary of the Tamara Aliyeva for the significant contribution to the development of dance art were awarded the title of people’s artist of the USSR. A significant event in the Republic of edition of a textbook “Doira gift”, prepared by Tamara Khanum with her mentor Mouth Alim Kamilov, in which collected a huge dance the material, which displays the the main movements of the dance, executable under дойру-tambourine. The founder of the “Fergana school dance” became a famous Mukarram Turgunbaeva. She fell in love with dance after the heard singing, Mukhiddin Kari-Yakubov and saw “Dilhiroj” in fulfillment of Tamara Khanum, after which decided to go to work in the theater. First, on the recommendation of the Kari-Yakubov M. Turgunbaeva worked in the backup the troupe of the Samarkand state musical-drama theatre. She describes the difficulties of those years: “When arrived in Samarkand and steel Actresses, the first week was very hungry, the salary was small, but spend, save still could not. In the early days of all spend, and then sit on bread and sour milk” But not a famine was her terrible. “All this I bore easily,” told M. Turgunbaeva, but now fear not desert me. I remember the concert in the stables, which we have cleaned out. It was raining, the roof leaked, the audience there were a total of ten men! But we gave a full concert. We knew that tomorrow the audience will be more. Every day I afraid that I may be killed, as Нурхон. And then the Mouth Alim and his wife Begimhon adopted me. I went to live with them and gradually calmed down. On the whole the life of the memory remained the infinite voltage of these years, I раскрепощалась only during the execution of a song or dance, became happy, joyful, even shoulders straighten up”.
In the 1930s dancing Makarrami Turgunbaeva “picking cotton” in the pantomime “Red caravan”, “Lifting the veil” in the ballet “Shahid”, dance “Gulsary” in the musical drama “Gulsara” are perceived as opening, as a call to the freedom of women. The heroine played M. Turgunbaeva images, dances of those years for the Uzbek women are an example of the ideal. Dance “Tanovar”, which has been preserved on film in her performance, is a deeply national. “My “Tanovar”, – said Mukarram, – was born in my soul in the night after the as I saw in the concert room scene “The dying Swan”. It seemed to me, and it seems right now that it is a great the performance. He had the impression strong, so overwhelming, that I’m all didn’t sleep last night and a few days lived as in a fever, while I have in my heart formed “Uzbek Swan” – “Tanovar”.
In the monologue plastics gesture revealed the qualities peculiar to the creativity a dancer. In The “Tanovare” M. Turgunbaeva with the help of gestures, attitudes could show Trевогу in the eyes of the Uzbek women, waiting for the news from the sons, fathers, husbands from the front. Famous the Russian artist And. M. Moskvin, seeing dance in her performance, said: “Tanovar “is a song without words Talent to speak plastic gesture”. In 1957. Mukarram Turgunbaeva organized ensemble “Ziff”. Together with Isohorovim Okilovim, leading choreographer Uzbekistan, gathered in a team, girls, who graduated from the Tashkent the choreographic school and worked in the variety Theatre and the Theatre of Opera and ballet. Navoi. The collective became prize-winner of many national and international competitions. With the I960 g. ensemble “Ziff” – the State the dance ensemble of the Republic of Uzbekistan. M. Turgunbaeva constantly worked on the improvement of the Uzbek dance. She has created not only a new the composition, but also introduced innovations in Uzbek choreography. The scene saw numerous mass dance. Compositions created by M. Turgunbaeva, demonstrate the friendship, the way of life, labour everyday lives of people. Among them poem “Seven beauties”, Suite “Pakhta” (“Cotton “) and others. Suite “Cotton” girls ensemble “Ziff” performed so masterfully, that the dance is a kind of the symbol of the performing arts Of Uzbekistan. Dance Mukarram in this the party became developed the dance of hands, conditionally illustrating, as of grain grew shoots, as bloomed a flower, a closed box cotton, preserving fine fibers. “Many of the movements of the hands of the Fergana dance grew out of the ordinary household, labour gestures, but the dancers their “summed up “, and found the artistic symbol of gesture. Remember the original motion brushes of hands in any of Fergana dance – soft brush “minimized” and “unfolds”, look at this movement, divide the elements, and you will understand: it is precisely because of the labour movement during the collection cotton”, – writes M. Turgunbaeva in his the diary. Folk songs and dances with a new force, a bright sounded on the stage. M. Turgunbaeva has brought up hundreds of students, which has left a legacy of dancing, took a worthy place in the Golden Fund of choreographic art. And now its mass dances “Worms”, “Cotton”, “Baet”, “Rohat”, “Katta uyin”, “Namangan apples”, “Rubai Fergana” and single “Havaskor”, “Doll”, “Rohat”, “Tanovar”, “Munojat”, “Rubai Fergana” loved by the audience.
After the ensemble “Ziff” appeared other ensembles-followers: “o’zbekiston”, “Tanovar”, “Лазги”, “Zarafshon”. ABOUT M. Turgunbaeva you can now speak not only as a big connoisseur of plastics of East dance and dance rhythms, but also as a brilliant actress, choreographer and teacher, devoting themselves to the development of Uzbek dance. A considerable contribution to the development of the Uzbek choreographic art made Roziya Karimov – a disciple and successor of the creative activity of Tamara Khanum and Makarrami Turgunbaeva. In the art of Uzbek dance R. Karimov known as a dancer, choreographer, teacher, scientist. She was born in the city of Kazan. Very early remained without parents, was brought up in an the house of the city of Margilan. Love to dance art introduced her to Mukarrammoy Turgunbaeva, with the same she arrived in Tashkent. In the 1930s. studied in the Studio of Musical – drama theatre,Samarkand headed by Muhiddin Measles – Yakubov, where he stayed after work of study in the theater. R. Karimov performed lyrical dances and played a dramatic the role. Among them Anarhon in the play “Urtoklar”, ASAL in the drama “Gulsara”, and Assiya, in “Arshin Mal Alan”. In Tashkent musical theatre, in the Theatre Opera and ballet named after Alisher Navoi R. Karimov has created a lot of dance the rooms. Singles dances, which were included in the drama “Farkhod and Shirin”, “Leyla and Majnun”, “Buran”, “Gulsara”, performed by myself. In the female ensemble P. Karimov acted with concerts in the North-West the front. A great dancer, a thoughtful teacher, she seriously was engaged in theoretical questions choreography.
In 1932. R. Karimov – teacher The Uzbek state choreographic of the school. Later the scientific – research on the art of Uzbek dance continued as a research fellow at the Institute art named after Khamza – now Institute of the art history Institute of the Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan. In I960 g. R. Karimov was engaged in systematization and generalization of scientific the main provisions, movements, rhythms of the Uzbek folk dance. In the Uzbek national dance has three schools: Fergana, Khorezm, Bukhara. In each of them a huge the value has become a dancer, then, that in the theory of choreography called “the staging of housing”, “direction the muscular forces”. Each school and their own clothes. Relying on the rich the experience of masters of dance styles, R. Karimov has prepared training manuals “The dance” (1973), “Khorezm dance” (1975), “Bukhara dance” (1977), as well as the book “Dancing ensemble “BA – choir”, “Doira zrblariga mashgulot” (“The studies on the impact on the tambourine”), “Dances Uzbekistan”. His mentor believe Roziyu Karimov Bernard Karieva, Раъно Shakhnoza Nizamova, Ibragim Yusupov, Dilafruz Djabbarova, Shokir Akhmedov, Dilbar Abdullaev, Karim Uzokova, Sivilya Tangurieva, Kadyr Muminov. In the years of the independence R. Karimova awarded the honorary title of doctor of art history.
Today, many women Tamara Khanum, Makarrami Turgunbaeva, Rozii Karimova contribute in the development of the art of dance. They fruitfully working in the theatre “Ofarin”dance, dance collectives “Sabo”, “Uzbegim Yulduzlari”, “Uzbegim eshlari “.