To the question of the development of deccan school painting in the XVI – XVII centuries.

Issue #4 • 1407

Miniature painting of medieval India, where special attention was paid to the development of the genre of portrait, flourishing thanks to the patronage of the ruling dynasties. So, Jalaluddin Mohammad Akbar (1156-1605) was wont to sit personally and in this strictly obliged to pose for artists and officials. As a result there was created a whole gallery portraits of state officials. Due to this, according to the figurative words of the historian Abul Fazl Allami, “those who died, as would have been revived again, and those who are alive, it was ensured immortality! ” Highest flowering of portrait painting coincides with the time of the Nuriddin Muhammad Jahangir (1605 – 1627) and Shihabuddina Muhammad Sahdjadhana (1627 – 1658). Especially favourable conditions for the development of this genre of art were created by when Jahangir, уделявшем him a lot of attention, being thin a connoisseur and patron of the arts. Sahdjadhana, continuing the traditions of his father and grandfather, the most priority direction of thought architecture and architecture, graphic an example of which was the construction of the legendary Taj Mahal.
As for the fine art, it is as a special direction in the art of medieval South India has been developed under the deep influence of such schools, as radjupurskay and Mughal. Zahiriddin Muhammad Babur and his descendants, as emphasized In. In. Bartold, were wrongfully named “by the Mughals,” although this ethnic community in history has never existed. In To the question of the development of Deccan school painting in the XVI – XVII centuries. Uzbekistan also descendants of Babur, usually called “Babur”. As for us, then, to avoid violations of the Russian tradition, we prefer to use the term “Mughal Empire”. For its part, H. Story – well-known the English historian – Babur and his descendants called “Indian Темуридами”. However, in our opinion, in addition to purely art aspects in this process played a role of socio – political and cultural factors, such as, inter alia, with one side – long-term military-political confrontation Muslim kingdoms of the Dean of the Hindu state Виджаянагар, and on the other – the gradual penetration of the South India elements of Eastern, Central Asian and of European origin, took place in the mainstream broadcast new achievements in the field of material and spiritual culture. With this in itself the political history of South India that period is very difficult, in any case it was impossible to generalize in traditional terms of the Indo – Muslim rivalries. Moreover, in the opinion of a number of the authors, absolutely not stand up to criticism is also widely a common point of view of the Indian historian T.V.. Mahalingama that the goal of the Foundation was Vidjayanagora by their nature, religious, for in fact this opinion is not than other, as the transference to the period of the middle ages relations, arisen in the end of the new time. It should be noted that in the portrait painting Dean at the beginning of the XVII century. the influence of the so-called Mughal or the court thumbnails Northern India. Impact Mughal painting the portrait painting Bijapur clearly can be seen in the composition solution miniatures, which becomes more static and balanced.
Portraits created in Bidjapure, according to specialists, different plasticity, free, soft pattern, thorough and confident transfer characteristic facial features, a smooth contour, mild modeling. Researchers note traits such Deccan the school, like a rich lush landscape, where a very fine figure and bright colors emphasize the charm. The idea of clothing is also only for this school, where noticeable a certain trend in decoration. Thumbnails of Bijapur inherent in the unbalanced layout with some mixture of the main the image to the edges of the sheet. As regards the character of the formation of деканской school of painting, here, as it seems to us, very important factor was the tendency to the allocation of regional priorities, embodying in himself synthesis of various heterogeneous traditions of local Iranian – Turkish and Portuguese, which contributed to the create a special биджапурского style, which contrasted with the features like: the depth of color, where the most favourite color – blue with abundant using the Golden shades; restriction of the thumbnails, as usually, one piece, and in those cases, where several of them, there are no attempts to show the prospect, and all the action focused on the foreground; face image in the profile. the interpretation of a female portrait – typical Indian both in form and in terms of content. A woman dressed in a Sari, following a purely деканской fashion, the interpretation of the their faces different from usually provided by in the early Mughal painting.
The evolution of the деканской school of painting, which is conditionally divided into two period (1590 – 1605) and (1605 – 1627) allow us to trace, in particular, extant portraits of the Sultan Ibrahim Адилыпаха Paragraph (1580-1627), ruler of Bijapur. If the first the period was marked by a mixture of Iranian, Indian and European traditions, the second shows the combination of high Deccan and Mughal styles. It is important to note that the Portuguese or European influence has obvious implications the manner of execution of the portrait Sultan Bijapur artist Murtaza Наккашем that particularly evident from the treatment of the face and hands, and, in addition, the image of a winged angel at the top of thumbnails, that, undoubtedly, testifies to the use of Christian item in the palette of the high Deccan painter. This process in the social plan was accompanied by a very important phenomena of the syncretic nature as in the field of ethnic, religious, ideological, economic, and linguistic and domestic relations, in many ways contributing to the rapprochement of the Hindu and Muslim communities. Due to this many borrowed concepts from the outside different plan became the property of both societies.
Thus, the creation of деканской school of painting by the synthesis of different traditions of fine art contributed a lot to the extensive on the scale of the process formation of общетерриториальной identity and development of public space in the South of India as a whole. Moreover, this phenomenon also can be viewed as a the trend towards the globalization of synthetic aspirations in the various fields of life of medieval India.

Shamuhamedova Dinara

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