Historical events of the early XX century. brought global changes in the the various spheres of the life of the country. Together with the socio-political changes there have been changes the traditional Outlook the company that impact on stereotypes of perception works of jewelry art. In this period there has been a gradual the loss of magic-and-protective functions such traditional ornaments, as amulets, reduction in the demand for them among the population.
In the second half of the XX century monopoly jewelry factories for the right of manufacture items made of precious metals left for artists applied arts and people’s masters only the opportunity to work with malovyrazitelnym cupronickel alloy and on rare private orders of silver and gold. Work in a creative way masters of jewelry factories, limited the norm in grams of precious metal and one of the stone-the stone, with the one hand, and the pressing adopted framework of the “design” – on the other, was it is difficult to. As a result of the basic attitude to the jewelry look how to invest in precious metal products to a customer, be valuable, first of all, the weight of the precious material of the product, and not the art the idea of.
At the present time in the jewelry business Uzbekistan is reborn art the value of art. Jewelry business develops in three main directions. First of them is the the continuation of the centuries-old experience the craft of the old masters and the development of rich palette of traditional ornamental motives (creation of a hereditary Bukhara masters- the jeweler And. Haydarov, etc.). The second direction demonstrates creativity masters (f. Dadamukhamedov, P. Mukhamettyres, And. Mustaev, etc.), working in the as part of the national and classical traditions, but often stray from canons, introducing not peculiar to them ornamentation and figurative motives, reinforcing element individually- the author’s interpretation and style. And the third direction of developing artists-applied arts and designers, creating decorative compositions, plastic variation which is not find neither the similarities nor the associative relations with the folk art (У. Холмурадов, A. и Г Барковские, A. Улумбекова, etc.).
Interesting dynamics of development world of decorative arts XX in. – from the eclectic art Nouveau to the austere Minimalism, with the Babel and contemplative Orientalism and ethno- folk-style and sound and pragmatic Constructivism and techno design. Such a complex and high-speed the way metamorphosis in the development of decorative art took place in parallel, and sometimes and in the synthesis of the relevant evolutionary processes fine art, one of the fundamental which directions in the XX century. became the abstract, expressive of yourself in a concise formula – “denial of the preceding the experience and the rejection of визуальнос- ti, a visible embodiment of the spiritual phenomena, transition to the world of speculative”. When this initially fine the art of much of the “abstracted” from the traditions of the old decorative art of the East. Today world unconventional decorative the art of contemporary crafts movement (the traffic of modern Handicrafts) as well as architecture, literature, music and the fine arts, contains the impulses of the present, its philosophy. It has acquired its own history, theory, aesthetics, art currents and iconography. To this layer can be attributed, and creativity artists-прикладников Uzbekistan named above “the third directions” (in particular, У. Холмурадов) as the positive experience of output in the context of modern world culture. This experience is the most interesting as evidence of the further evolution of the the art of jewellery, is progressive innovative techniques and extraordinary conceptual design as a means of plastic expressiveness.
The format of the article are not able to cover the entire spectrum of contemporary jewelry art of Uzbekistan. Restrict ourselves to the the study of the selected works the most vivid of jewelers of Tashkent, as Ulugbek Holmuradov and tandem Gulnara and Alexander Barcovskiy. U. Holmuradov graduated from the Department graphic design architectural the faculty of the Tashkent architectural construction Institute.
Jewelry creative work began after the training basic knowledge of the craft of the famous jewelry artist Levon Avagian. With 1995 has been working in the sphere of subject design (furniture, jewelry), architectural design and design of interiors, in particular shops “Human Clothes” (Tashkent), “Art Flowers” (Czech Republic, Prague) and etc. Have. Холмурадов internship and he worked in a jewelry company Zlatnictvi Aurum s.r.o. (Czech Republic). It stylish the criteria are professionalism manufacturing and design approach to shaping, in which it clearly reflects his architectural education. The originality of the spatial thinking and ingenuity in search of new textures and metal stone, combine them in a spirit of “the policy of of gross of contrasts a bold, not affected stereotypes, issue the enormous potential of modern conceptually, the thinking of the artist. Mikroplastika jewelry At. Holmuradova denies the relativity of the understanding the “monumental-large-scale” in the art, in the near consideration it receives architectural power, reveals the sculpture- the plastic expression of decisions and the capacity of the laconic concept with subtle accent allusions and delicate decoration. Stressed geometrized the product From.
Holmuradova in the process of “design” will acquire art-thought-out idea. The main the criterion of the song is often design, “dressed” in the aesthetic image – the elegantly from a mathematically rigorous perfectly balanced lines, clearly a measure of proportions, suggestive the philosophic contemplation of, duplicated in a creative way with the share of author’s irony. If you think, for whom are created for. Holmuradov product, the seems to be an image of the modern free the spirit of man, as a rule, the image of the “business woman” – self-contained, but allowing yourself to be feminine and lovely (kits “Numbers”, “Two of the beginning”, etc.). In individual cases, it is the image of the “men of large city” – sure, but the seeker its purpose, endowed with the some creative audacity (bracelets, rings, pendants). In the jewelry art In. Holmuradova there are two main directions of the stylistic searches. According to the author, “the first direction – the East, with a very strong impurities of modern design. I do not go by blind copying of traditional forms, I believe that this will lead to the extinction of the cultural traditions”. For example, earrings on a design oriented to the old traditional form Kashgar-baldog, in the process of author’s styling get different variations. This is a fine or decorative the motive of the earrings – composition of small sawn and polished inserts of colored stone and gaps empty air cells, a game which creates a kind of optical illusion the ratio of form, color and light in the space. “The second direction – tells U. Holmuradov, ” I have closer, it’s hard contemporary design a non-commercial character, serious and funny at the same time, not for a wide demand, but rather for the implementation of their creative ideas” (ear-rings “Tower”, “Shot”). In the works of The. Holmuradova identified and tricks again “fashionable” eclecticism, but not disgraced overkill and it is gratifying refined. In its products definitely stands mix techno design and jewellery industry of plastics, finds ethno Eastern and constructivist styles. The author, rather, reflects the image of of his time – the onslaught of information and digital technology, the flashing stories-by-night, time десакра- globalization and explications. In addition,the noticeably, and the presence of certain the share of the actual concept of “absurd”, when jewelry made of precious metal look deliberately austere and at the same time with a touch of snobbery, shaking the foundations of the usual clan of the “genuine” jewelry of the canons. Jewelry From. Holmuradova are unique exhibition works, his ideological search focus on the future. The basics style of this talented author consonant the principles of minimalism “Little means a lot”, “the Hidden harmony stronger than the obvious”that gives his work absolute simplicity and purity graphic design, perfection technological performance, capacity imaginative solutions of functional form.
In a different vein, develops creativity tandem of artists-jewelers Gulnara and Alexander Barkovskiy, more than ten years of working together. Mr.. Barkovckiy graduated from the Ural the College of applied arts and Tashkent state Institute of arts them. M. Uighur. A. Barkovsky he studied the secrets of the jewelry the works of the leading masters-jewellers Russia and Kazakhstan. Talented creativity Barkovskih built on the study of the history of art, what contributes to professional education art critic Mr.. Барковской. The author’s style of their is determined by a mix of ethno- historical characters-characters and mytho – semantics of the poetic ornamental motives of the various cultural ages, as well as perfection of technology execution, use of precious metals and high-quality natural semi-precious stones and minerals romantic elation shaped perceptions. In their creative work there are two trends, developing, however, independently from other: fine and decorative expressiveness, jewelry design in the spirit of European style.
Of the most notable songs in style Barkovskih you can consider kit “Petroglyphs”, consisting of earrings, pendants (necklaces, rings and bracelets of silver plates. In the composition of the set of “Petroglyphs ” a component of the unit is rectangular plate, decorated with bronze inlaid work and inserts from transparent amber, Apple-green, chrysoprase. Here inlays are used as reproduction “realistic style” primitive cosmogonic, anthropomorphic and animalistic images (the symbol of the sun, the scene hunting, dancing, etc.), and as a hint to the era of the bronze.
In the above example the introduction of depiction in jewelry art gives relevant to the the modernity of the effect of reflection. He is a process of tracking funds the expressiveness of fine arts in decorative-applied art. Primitive cave cult- magical figures marked in the history of art as the most ancient in the world conscious and recorded systematization of representations about the rhythm of time, space and the properties of the complex of the world. They still always are inspiring motive in my reflections on the eternal questions of on the structure of the Universe, actually, the destiny of the person in the flow of vital processes. In his work Barkovskiy turning to native people’s jewelry traditions. So, the beautiful the author’s styling Central- Asian jewelry style is necklace “Necklace” from the tremulous pendants, made from an old perchikovogo coral – kalampir, river pearls and old Bukhara the silver coin form is Tanga. Necklace kit decorated сложноплете- Noah chain, made according to ancient traditional Uzbek technology.
An interesting attempt to expand plastic thinking in the jewelry art present kit “Blue enamel” and earrings “Skeletons”. Set “Blue enamel” – freestyle interpretation of form and color Rishtan ceramic dishes. In the decoration of the set of used machinery cloisonne enamel blue-blue tones and the box of blue turquoise. In this case the authors are outside the scope of canons in fact the art of jewellery, taking as an art source elements of Rishtan ceramics. When they reached effect of “recognition” of the Uzbek folk style, while preserving the associative the vivid palette of the people’s semantics and emotional elation Oriental motives. Silver earrings “Skeletons” – example of search of avant-garde directions in the works, and A. Barkovskiy. The composition is solved in the form of naturalistic made skeleton of the fish and insertion of a blue Topaz instead of eyes.
High quality of the materials used, perfection and skill execution give this product with deliberately trivial story the effect of the fashion creativity, responsible the tastes of the modern concept of denial of the adopted framework of aesthetics. , And A. Barkovskiy successfully experimenting in the field of new invoices metals and their alloys, combining various materials and techniques (kit “Tree”, executed in the technique of modeling forms of processed cheese pieces of metal, almost naturalistic transmitting live texture of the plants). Though, certainly, the main the sphere of their creative search is intellectual content that, in the particular, is reflected in the “historical and classical quotations”, elements of the the findings of different styles and even techniques the decor of the other kinds of art, used in the formation and the decor of their products. Thus, modern jewelry art of Uzbekistan confirms prescription and stability of the traditions. For all the facets of the creative the quest of the leading jewelers of the country revives the main feature of the native-art style unity of form and content, harmony high ideas and perfection technology of production and application of the materials. At the present time increased the professional level of jewelers, dictated in part and healthy the market competition, which represents a great revival. You can note the abundance of new ideas and the proposed forms, invoices, design, Arsenal precious metals and natural stones, minerals extensive palette of non-traditional the materials. Improved information-intellectual base coverage of issues of semantics of the ancient and design of modern products, the acquirer at the customer’s genuine interest, which in turn connected with the activity of art-galleries of the country and the creativity of the researchers art. In the last decade there is a gradual change of perception of jewelry. Now they appreciated art the idea of. This is the great merit of the masters and artists-прикладников, which, in presenting their work at Republican and international exhibitions, which contribute to “education aesthetic taste of the consumer art.