Idiophonichskiy tools in the art of dance Azerbaijan

Issue #3 • 1317

Much has been said and written about the art of dance of Azerbaijan. However, despite the large number of studies, it has not been studied completely, which can be based on the wealth of the art of dance of Azerbaijan, who was constantly in development, its prosperity and development. The purpose of this article is to explore the role and importance of идиофонических instruments in the art of dance of Azerbaijan, the majority of идиофонических instruments which one way or another connected with the dance. As the object of research we chose 35 идиофонических the instruments used on the territory of Azerbaijan in different periods of its history. Among them гавалдаш, Barmag Zilya (finger plates), гашыгек (small type of spoons), which, джарас, гумров, зынгыров (the bells), and others, giving dance attractiveness and strengthened their national spirit. Идиофонические of the tools used in the dance, can be conditionally divided into 2 categories: dances, performed dancer or a dancer, and dances, performed by musicians, accompanying dancing. The first category includes tools Barmag Zilya (finger plates), гашыгек, зынгыров (the bells), джарас, джынгыров, which, Kaman, Shakh-Shakh. The second – гавалдаш, and lagguti, чахарпара, чынгыраг дэсти (a set of Kolo-кольчиков), альвах, гевсар, Casa дэсти (a set of bowls), кузэ дэсти (a set of jugs), musical rhythmic stones, мусал-Las (triangle), нелбеки дэсти (a set of dishes), blue (tray of different sizes), tesht (a tray with a deep bottom of a large size). Consider these instruments from the point of view of their role and importance in the art of dance. Гавалдаш. Speaking about some ancient art of Azerbaijan, we Willy-nilly, we appeal to the rock drawings of Gobustan, which seemed to tell us the good news of our musical culture, as well as the art of dance, the age of which is 20 thousand years old. Specialist-sheets true these places are called the first place, the scene of the folk dance, there you can see the signs of not only dancing, but also the first painting art, monuments of architecture, transport (boats, camels, wagons, etc.), ancient clothing and art kitchen (cuisine). To the question about what tools they used our ancestors, creating the first samples of dance, you can answer the following quotation from the works of the famous archaeologist and scholar-гобустановеда Джафаргулу Rustamova (1926 – 2005): “no Doubt that the people who created the ancient rock drawings, could not be indifferent to the music. Probably, they had tools such as тютек (flute) and гавал, made from organic materials – cane, reed, skins, wood, etc. But these tools are rotten for the Millennium and went not up to us” (1, p. 38). Let’s remind, that the first musical instruments were hollow pieces of stone or wood. In Gobustan are 2 гавалдаша that has survived to our daysй found in the mountains Джингирдаг North-Eastern sideн and Боюкдаш. The tribes living on this territory and engaged in hunting and cattle-breeding, that is, our ancestors, danced “Yalli” (sweet dance) accompanied by гавалдаша. The ancient artist perfectly portraying the sights of the rock drawings. In the middle ages, there was another archaic dance – “Чоппу”, similar to the “Yalli”, which they performed together. Azerbaijani poet Hatran Tabrizi (1012 -1088) in his work “Sofa” mentions the name of this dance. And lagguti. Performers гошанагары willingly use this tool, accompanying the dancers. Along with the rhythms, in the set of advanced and lagguti you can also perform specific danceable tunes. Dance called “and lagguti” put a talented choreographer Farhad Veliyev. It performed a children’s dance-вальная group “star of the East” under the leadership of Irada Ali-zadeh. Dance has caused great interest among the audience Mexico and Cuba in the “Days of Azerbaijan culture” in these countries, conducted in the spring of 2010. In Azerbaijan, we have repeatedly witnessed the dance performers, holding the hands of a number of musical instruments (мембранофонный Nagara and Def, хордофонный saz). But for the first time we meet with the statement, including the methods of execution, reminiscent of идиофонический and lagguti, which is a great example of the propaganda of this ancient musical instrument. During the dance, the tool and lagguti not presented on the stage, but the host announces that it will be implemented by the dance “and lagguti”. It would be appropriate, if the instrument and lagguti was on the stage and was presented to the audience. Hit the sticks one of another, does not mean reflect tool and lagguti on the stage. In the performing art of Azerbaijan a number of musical instruments is announced with a pair of chopsticks. For example: гошанагара, CBS, альвах, and lagguti, чахарпара, нелбеки дэсти, etc. Therefore, to distinguish and lagguti from the other above-mentioned instruments, during the dance, “and lagguti” tool necessarily need to show on the stage. Чахарпара is one of the species and lagguti of 4 parts. On it it is possible to perform sounds with 4 different heights. In the art of dance it can be used as an accompanying instrument. Чынгыраг дэсти. In ancient times instruments, similar to the bell, used in some cases, especially in scenes of battle. But in Azerbaijan on these instruments specific melodies play is impossible. During the dance on a чынгыраг дэсти can be play as an accompanying instrument. Альвах. On this instrument, invented by Abdulgadir Марагалы, you can perform many танцевалных melodies. Альвах was restored only recently, so we don’t have a professional artist. The tool is still awaiting. Сосудообразными instruments that have moved out of the way of life in our musical culture, ” гевсар, меджмеи (round tray), blue, tesht, mainly used in the execution folk music. More precisely, during the people’s views and entertainment. On them played as percussion instruments. Although these household tools are not perfect, but they are considered important in folk music. To the Asa дэсти. A. Марагалы invented the musical instrument COP, consisting of bowls, publishing sounds of different heights. He played on it many songs, mughams and dances of his time. In the recent past, we have witnessed the performance of the folklore ensemble “IRS”. Гашыгек. In his pair of miniature work of “Dance of the dervishes” famous representative of miniature school of Azerbaijan Мухаммеди (? -1580) depicts гашыгек, along with tools such as Def, табира, дохул, даире, мусигар, джарас. On this pair figure shows the people’s idea of “the Fuel and energy complex oyunu”, whose participants – buffoons skipping the voices of гашыгек. On the other miniature figure of an unknown author shows чянг, DEP and 12 dancers, playing on the гашыгеке. Miniature figures indicate that in the middle ages, the art of the dance of Azerbaijan small гашыгеком used as аккомпанирующим tool. Кузэ дэсти (a set of jugs). Tool invented the famous musicologist Khodja Разиеддин Ризваншахом, who lived in the XIV century, long out of use. But нелбеки дэсти (a set of dishes), used in our days, gives the opportunity to Express an opinion, that it can be considered a “relative” of кузэ дэсти. If the нелбеки дэсти you can accompany with the dance performance, means, and to кузэ дэсти it was possible to execute them. Music rhythmic stones. The first идиофонические musical instruments are considered to be the “alphabet” of all the musical instruments, which are called rhythmic stones. The history of creation of the art of dance is an ancient one, the first musical instruments of this genre can be considered as the rhythmic stones. In order to encourage dancing, primitive people poked at the beat of the dance routine hollow cobble-stones. Мусаллас (triangle). In the recently-it past the tool used performers гошанагары, to remove the additional variety of sounds. It is known that гошанагара – one of the leading musical instruments used in the art of dance. This instrument in the form of a triangle to the execution of dance in their ensembles use performer oboe people’s artist Kamil Jali-fishing and the honored artist of Natig Sheri-new. Нелбеки дэсти (a set of dishes) – one of the musical instruments, too, passing from life. In Azerbaijan musical culture of this tool for the first time began to use the honoured artist of Гасанага Sadigov. Creating a chromatic sound order, he plays the melody of any dance on нелбеки дэсти. Sinj you can use to maintain heroic dances and musical instruments, with the sonorous sound. In fact tool, which dancers voice, putting on the fingers, is a miniature form of синджа. Barmag Zilya (finger plates). The metal rings on the back of the plates (with a diameter of 30 – 40 mm, and the thickness of 2-3 mm)made of copper, silver, or brass, artist puts on a large and middle finger (sometimes on the index fingers of both hands. This instrument is sometimes called чалпара. The contractor presents the plates, beating them one against the other. Such instruments in ancient times used the dancer or the dancers-мутрубы Зынгыров the bellsи, and the alliedе he instrumentsы джарасс джынгыров is your favorite tools dancersв dervishes and мутрубовв which encouraged himself during the dance. Хаяхал. In the middle ages, which was the favorite tools of the Palace of the dancers. During the dance, the women wore which the ankles and on the hands and shook them under the rhythm of the music. They attracted the attention of the audience ringing sound халхала and in this way the interest of the public. Kaman is a tool, which is used exclusively in the art of dance. Before it was a weapon. Later, by introducing certain changes, dancers played on it as a musical instrument. As идиофонический musical instrument, Kaman played a huge role in development and formation of the dance “Yalli”, in the course of which яллыбашы (principal dancer) mainly uses каманом. Яллыбашы sometimes called “элбашы” or “тойбашы”. Яллыбашы considered to be the main dancer, the leading and the performer dances, during which time he shakes the wooden part of the камана in the right hand of the voice and instrument in accordance with the pace (slow, medium or fast) dance. During her solo dance, when the second hand яллыбашы free, he is voiced by Kaman, striking a tool of the left hand. Яллыбашы, as well as any dancer can use каманом during her solo dance. Shakh-Shakh – one of the musical instruments, often used by dancers in ancient times. His image provision is found in miniature paintings of the middle ages. This tool mainly voiced by implementing гошанагары. The contractor holds the grip of the шахшаха in his hand and shakes them the rhythm of the dance. Cups or small синджи strike one against the other and as a result of smacking sound шахшаха applies. Shakh-Shakh – accompanying toolт which can be peculiar to fulfill all the rhythms. Studies have shown that a number of идиофонических instruments plays a huge role in the development of the art of dance. It should be noted that there are a number of problems in connection with the names of the Azerbaijani dances. For example, in the performance of the dance, presented as “Шалахо”, used musical motives of such ancient dances as “Шелегой”, “Old Baku”, “Gars”, etc. Therefore, it should not be called “Шалахо”, in reality it is “Шелегой”. The analysis showed that the origin of the name of this dance gave the phrase “шелени Goy, сонра регс et” (“put the burden, then dance”). Later its name was distorted in the language of the neighbouring peoples, and the dance was called the “Шалахо”. If the formulation of a new dance uses the music lyrics and melodies several dance, a dance should be presented in the form of a song. For example dances with such a statement should be called “Composition on the basis of the motives of the dance “Шелегой”, “Composition чобанлар”. That is to present several dances by the audience under the name of a dance, not quite true.

The material prepared by Shamuhamedova Dinara

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